1. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_N._Leval.
  2. See, for example, Patricia Aufderheide and Peter Jaszi, Reclaiming Fair Use: How to Put Balance Back in Copyright (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011). See also “Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for the Visual Arts,” http://www.collegeart.org/pdf/fair-use/best-practices-fair-use-visual-arts.pdf.
  3. See Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World (New York: Vintage Books, 2002); see also James Boyle, Shamans, Software, and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society (Cambridge, MA; London: Harvard University Press, 1996).
  4. Pierre N. Leval, “Toward a Fair Use Standard,” http://docs.law.gwu.edu/facweb/claw/levalfrustd.htm; the opinion in Folsom v. Marsh (1841) is regarded as the first modern implementation of the fair use doctrine. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folsom_v._Marsh.
  5. Leval, “Toward a Fair Use Standard.” Original emphasis.
  6. See Mattel Inc. v. Walking Mountain Productions (2003), https://scholar.google.com.mx/scholar_case?case=7581792703482092445&hl=en&as_sdt=6&as_vis=1&oi=scholarr&sa=X&ved=0CBsQgAMoAD
    ; Blanch v. Koons (2006), http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/people/tfisher/IP/2006%20Blanch%20Abridged.pdf; Cariou v. Prince (2013), https://scholar.google.com.mx/scholar_case?case=5845890683658306826&hl=en&as_sdt=6&as_vis=1&oi=scholarr&sa=X&ved=0CBsQgAMoAD
  7. See Friedman v. Guetta (2011), http://www.pattishall.com/pdf/Friedman_v_Guetta.pdf.
  8. See United States Code Title 17, Section 107, http://copyright.gov/title17/circ92.pdf.
  9. On Damian Loeb scandal, see http://www.damianloeb.com/news/talk-dannatt-adrian-out-of-context; on Prince and Instagram, see http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-06-17/richard-prince-instagram-and-authorship-in-a-digital-world.
  10. See Amy Adler, “Fair Use and the Visual Arts,” http://its.law.nyu.edu/faculty/profiles/representiveFiles/AAdler-FairUseFutureofArt-forthcoming_0E1EA254-1B21-6206-60F8205D22FB1AFC.pdf.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid.
  13. “Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for the Visual Arts.”
  14. Ibid.
  15. United States Code Title 17, Section 107.
  16. Ibid.